Great Groups Category

Table: Great group names in Soil Taxonomy - formative elements and meaning

Formative element Derivation Meaning or connotation
Acr Gr. akros, at the end Extreme wethering
Agr L. ager, field An agric horizon
Alb, Al L. albus, white An albic horizon
Anhyd Gr. anhydros, dry Without water
Aqui, Aqu L. aqua, water Wetness
Arg L. argilla, white clay An argillic horizon
Bor Gr. boreas, northern Cool climate
Calc L. calcic, lime A calcic horizon
Camb L. cambiare, to exchange A cambic horizon
Cry Gr. Kryos, cold Cold climate
Duri, Dur L. durus, hard A duripan
Dystr Gr. dys, ill; dystrophic, infertile Low base saturation
Endo Gr. endon, within Groundwater
Eutr Gr. eu, good; eutrophic, fertile High base saturation
Epi Gr. epi, upon Perched water table
Ferr L. ferrum, iron Presence of iron
Fluv L. fluvus, river Flood plain
Fulv L. fulvus, deep yellow Dark yellow epipedon
Frag L. fragillis, brittle A fragipan
Fragloss Compound of fra(g) and gloss See the formative elements frag and gloss
Geli Gr. gelid, very cold Permafrost
Gloss Gr. glossa, tongue Interfingered horizon boundary
Gyps L. gypsum, gypsum Gypsic horizon
Hal Gr. hals, salt Salty
Hapl Gr. haplous, simple Minimum horizon
Hum L. humus, earth Presence of humus
Hydr Gr. hydro, water Presence of water
Kandi Modified from kandite A kandic horizon
Kanhapl Compound kan(di) and hapl Thin kandic horizon
Luvi, Lu Gr. louo, to wash Illuvial
Med L. meda, middle Temperate climate
Melan, Melano Gr. melas, black Melanic epipedon
Natr Modified form natrium, sodium A natric horizon
Pale Gr. paleos, old Old development
Petro Gr. petra, rock Petrocalcic horizon
Plac Gr. base of plax, flat stone Presence of a thin pan
Plinth Gr. plinthos, brick A plinthite
Psamm Gr. psammos, sand Sand texture
Quartzi Ger. quarz, quartz High quartz content
Rhod Gr. base of rhodon, rose Dark red colors
Sali, Sal L. base of sal, salt Salic horizon
Sombri Fr. sombre, dark A dark horizon
Sphagno Gr. sphagnos, bog Presence of sphagnum moss
Sulfo, Sulf L. sulfur, sulfur Presence of sulfides
Torri L. torridus, hot and dry Usually dry
Trop Gr. tropikos, of the solstice Continually warm
Udi, Ud L. udus, humid Udic soil moisture regime
Umbr L. base of umbra, shade Umbric epipedon
Usti, ust L. base of ustus, burnt Ustic soil moisture regime
Vermi, Verm L. base of vermes, worm Wormy, or mixed by animals
Vitri, Vit L. vitrum, glass Presence of glass
Xero, Xer Gr. xerox, dry Xeric soil moisture regime